A master's degree is the prerequisite for starting a PhD. This study consists mainly of independent research work, but also additional courses, seminars and attendance at congresses. The PhD program should promote independent thinking and an extended knowledge of chemistry. The PhD study can mainly be arranged by the PhD student in discussion with the supervisor. With the PhD degree the student should be able to take over and to solve independently scientific research problems. The study ends with the award of the PhD degree (Dr. sc. nat. = PhD). The regulations for the PhD studies can be found here.